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Environmental Principles and Policies

Environmental Principles and Policies

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The book Environmental Principles and Policies: An Interdisciplinary Introduction, written by Professor

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Environmental movement

Environmental movement

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Conservation movement

Conservation movement

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Young people are leading the way in campaigns to protect the environment. This trend toward environmental activism is reflected in schools: 99 percent now offer environmental education programs or have ecology clubs. Young people across the nation are taking up environmental causes and, in some cases, are winning huge battles for their communities.



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My Grandfather was an Urban Gardener

[img_assist|nid=24540|title=|desc=|link=none|align=left|width=75|height=100]Harvest Sermon for Arthur Rollinson. - by David Bowring

Harvest festivals are found around the world. Some, like the German Oktoberfest are pretty secular. Others, like the one describer in the Book of Deuteronomy, are deeply religious. Deuteronomy 26 begins with these words.

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A ROCHA Christians in conservation.

Conservation Law Foundation (617) 350-0990


Earth Island Institute 300 Broadway, Suite 28, San Francisco, CA 94133
Tel: (415) 788-3666


Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. Government Agency)
401 M Street SW, Washington, D.C. 20460 Tel: (202) 382-2096

Environmental Policy Institute

/Friends of the Earth 218 D Street, SE, Washington, D.C. 20003 Tel: (202) 544-2600

Forest Service - National Tel: (202) 447-3760

Green Roundtable 38 Chauncy St., 7th Floor, Boston, MA 02111 Tel: 617-374-3740 Fax: 617-457-7839

National Oceanographic & Atmospheric Administration 

Tel: (202) 377-2985


U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Tel: (202) 208-3171


United Nations Environment Programme 2 United Nations Plaza, New York City, NY 10017 Tel: (212) 963-8093 or (212) 963-8138

Environmental Defense Fund 

257 Part Ave. South, New York, NY 10010
(212)505-2100 Provides public education, litigation, and legislation.


Greenpeace International 1436 U St. NW, Washington, D.C. 20009
(202) 462-1177 Organizes nonviolent protests to protect endangered species monitoring of toxic waste, etc.


National Audubon Society 950 Third Ave. New York, NY 10022 Tel: (212) 832-3200 Offers research programs to aid endangered species camps and workshops for children and adults.

Natural Resources Defense Council 40 West 20th Street, New York, NY 10114-0466 Tel: (212) 727-2700. In California, call: (415) 777-0230 or (213) 892-1500. In Washington, D.C., call: (202) 783-7800. In Hawaii, call: (808) 533-1075.

Rocky Mountain Institute (970) 927-3851, Snowmass, CO; (303) 245-1003, Boulder, CO

Sierra Club 730 Polk St., San Francisco, CA 94109 Tel: (415) 776-2211 Promotes protection and conservation of natural resources; maintains library; attempts to influence public policy.

US Green Building Council US: 1-800-795-1747; Other Countries: 202-742-3792; Fax: 202-828-5110; U.S. Green Building Council 1800 Massachusetts Avenue NW Suite 300 Washington, DC 20036

Worldwatch Institute 

1776 Massachusetts Ave. NW, Washington, D.C. 20036
(202) 452-1999 Facilitates global problem solving; sponsors research on global warming.



The Amicus Journal

(A publication of the Natural Resources Defense Council). Published quarterly of thought and opinion for the general public on environmental affairs, particularly those relating to policies of national and international significance. See address of NRDC above.

Bach, J.S. & Hall, L. (eds.). (1986). The Environmental Crisis: Opposing Viewpoints

. St. Paul, MN: Greenhaven Press. As part of the Opposing Viewpoint Series, this text for students is a good starting point for those who want to contrast different opinions about threats to our environment. This series fits well into the aim of the Youthworker’s Encyclopedia as it culls from newspapers, magazines, journals, and books a wide range of viewpoint from experts and organizations. After a brief introduction, each chapter raises a different issue: "Is There an Environmental Crisis? Should Corporations be Held Responsible for Environmental Disasters? Have Pollution Regulations Improved the Environment? Is Nuclear Power an Acceptable Risk? How Dangerous are Toxic Wastes? How Harmful is Acid Rain? Six answers are given in as many essays. Bibliographies, organizations to contact, and an index conclude this book.

Balchandran, S. (ed.). (1993). Encyclopedia of Environmental Information Sources

. Gale.

Cromartie, M. (ed.). (1995). Creation at Risk? Religion, Science, and Environmentalism

. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. Ten scholars and activists "explore and clash" over the relationship of the position of the environmental movement to Judeo-Christian beliefs about humankind’s proper relationship to the natural world. There is substantive scholarly discussion here and strong differences of opinion.

Devall, W. (1988). Simple in Means: Rich Practicing Deep Ecology

. Salt Lake City: Gibbs, Smith.

Firestone, D.B. & Reed, F.C. (1983). Environmental Law for Non-Lawyers

. South Royalton, VT: SoRo Press.

Hardin, G. (1977). The Limits of Altruism. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.

Hawken, Paul.  The Ecology of Commerce: A Declaration of Sustainability (New York: HarperBusiness, 1993).

Hawken, Paul, and Amory Lovins, L. Hunter Lovins.  

Natural Capitalism:
Creating the Next Industrial Revolution
(Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1999).

Lewis, M. (1992). Green Delusions : an Environmentalist Critique of Radical Environmentalism. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Lomborg, Bjorn.  The Skeptical Environmentalist (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2001).

McDonough, William and Michael Braungart. Cradle to Cradle: Remaking the Way We Make Things (New York: North Point Press, 2002).  Thoughtful and very readable call for the next industrial revolution.

This is a helpful resource as well.

Myers, N. (ed.). (1984). Gaia: An Atlas of Planet Management. Anchor Press. An amazing amount of information packed into colorful and informative charts and maps.

Suzuki, David and Holly Dressel.  Good News for a Change: How Everyday People are Helping the Planet (Vancouver: Greystone Books, 2002).

World Directory of Environmental Organizations

. (4th ed.). (1992). California Institute of Public Affairs. Lists organizations worldwide.

Worldwatch Institute. State of the world: A Worldwatch Institute Report on Progress Toward a Sustainable Society

. New York, London: Norton & Co. Published annually.

Worldwatch Institute.Vital Signs: The Trends That are Shaping Our Future

. New York, London: Norton & Co. Published annually.


Wright, N.G. & Kill, D. (1993). Ecological Healing: A Christian View. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books. The authors of this book draw on the global, ecumenical experience of Coordination in Development (CODEL). This network, a consortium of Christian agencies, supports people who have little chance of influencing economic and political decisions that greatly affect their lives. It is a call to hear the worldwide cries of the poor so that we might "live lovingly, joyfully, and peacefully on this Earth." The book concludes with strategies and tactics for attaining such goals.

Dean Borgman & Richard B. Kennelly cCYS

Egypt Goes Green

Daniszewski, J. (5 December, 2004) “In Bustling Cairo, Oasis of Green Arises,” The Boston Globe




(Download Cairo Oasis of Green overview as a PDF)

Residents of Cairo, a city of 17 million famous for its dust, heat, and traffic, have turned something lost into an unexpected find. Thanks to what Daniszewski calls “an unusual initiative combining horticulture, community development, and archaeology,” the Aga Khan Trust

for culture has created a 74 acre park atop a 500-year-old garbage dump.


Max Rodenbeck, a longtime resident of Cairo and author of Cairo: The City Victorious, says “It’s lovely, one of the nicest things to happen in Cairo

over the last 50 years.” Indeed, a decade of planning and construction appears to have paid off. Not only is the park lined with palms, fountains, ponds, streams, waterfalls, alfresco dining services, and hundreds of thousands of new plants, it is also situated in the historic heart of the Egyptian capital. 




Though some residents worry the maintenance task will be too great to manage, the Aga Khan Trust is committed to directing things for three years, then making its oversight available to the city. For now, most residents are thrilled to have a new sweeping space in which they may walk, dine, converse, and simply breathe.



1.      What do you think the presence of this park will mean for the people of Cairo



2.      Is such a renovation project worth the time, effort, and cost?


3.      What is it about urban living that makes such ideas desirable?


4.      Are there many green spaces in or around your neighborhood?


5.      If so, what purpose to they serve for adults and teenagers?



Large cities do not often develop with an eye toward preserving natural spaces, much less rehabilitating garbage dumps. The achievement of the Aga Khan Trust is admirable, both for its ingenuity, and for its ability to ward off other, perhaps more profitable, development initiatives. It is likely the quality of life in urban areas would be greatly improved by similar measures in America

’s cities and towns.



Christopher S. Yates cCYS

A World Pact Reduced to Ashes

Crossfeld, S. (1997, May 25). A World Pact Reduced to Ashes: Rhetoric of Environmental Resolve has not Translated into Action. The Boston Globe

, pp. A1, 26.



(Download World Pact Reduced to Ashes overview as a PDF)


Paragominas, Brazil, lies 3° below the equator, amidst the world’s largest rainforest. From a plane the patches of decimated forest are enough to break the heart of an environmentalist. Along the streets, children sweating in 100° heat and choking in winds of charcoal smoke and dust can anger those who care for the welfare of the next generation.

Although Brazil hosted the Earth Summit (the U.N. Conference on Environment and Development in 1992), its government has not been able to live up to its plans for monitoring forest devastation. Its environmental offenses do not match those of the United States, but concern about its forest—the world’s largest absorber of carbon dioxide (and now 18% destroyed)—is growing. The Brazilian government recently reported that none of the 34 Paragominas logging companies passed minimum requirements set by the regulatory ITTO

(International Tropical Timber Organization).


Pollution in Paragominas is so bad that three of every four residents suffer a respiratory disease.


In Paragominas, in the northern state of Para, everyday looks like doomsday; although half the sawmills are already gone in search of cheaper and closer wood. It is impossible to tell where the smoke ends and the clouds begin. There are no water services, no lights, no garbage collection, and no sewers—only wood huts with mud floors built within feet of the ovens.


In the charcoal camps, the cremation of the rainforest is methodical. Tree trunks are stacked like toothpicks, chopped, burned, raked, and transported to power massive pig iron factories.

The Brazilian government has progressive environmental and child labor legislation, but this has not adequately curbed abuses in either area. A program that pays children an amount equal to possible salaries to stay in school is not working in Paragominas. Monitoring child labor in charcoal production, Sonia Levi of the UN’s International Labor Office



It’s hard work and hazardous conditions. They (young children) work directly with fire. Their bodies are impregnated with charcoal dust. They have physical problems, problems with their lungs, they carry very heavy loads of wood. They have back problems. It must be hell.


The pictures of children that accompany this article are poignant. Antonio, 15, wipes sweat, sawdust, and smoke from his burning eyes with mud-caked hands and arms. He wears only shorts, and doesn’t even look up as he answers the interviewer:


‘I don’t go to school. I can’t read and I can’t write. I build the ovens, but I don’t get paid. I want to get out of here, but I can’t.’


Mario is only 11, but says he works three hours a day without pay for his father. His job is to rake charcoal out of the igloo-shaped ovens with a pitchfork.


‘I have a fever and malaria. (He says matter-of-factly, and then adds as a lumber truck roars by...) I’d like some day to be a driver.’


Elaine, 14, is lucky enough to be in school, which may have made her, at this point, more critical than understanding:


‘People here are stupid. They think this is a life and that it is enough. There’s very few that want better. People are afraid to try and do another thing. There are many boys here who don’t go to school. I want to be a teacher. My brother is there to work in charcoal and he thinks the charcoal is forever.’

Just three miles from this shanty town and the charcoal ovens, wealthy teenagers visit the mall in their designer jeans, purchase clothes, cosmetics and music items, and select a snack from among twenty flavors of Amazon fresh-fruit ice cream. According to the World Bank

, Brazil has the largest disparity between rich and poor in all the world.



  1. What most impresses you in this article? What do you want to discuss?
  2. To what extent should national governments and world agencies work to protect the rights of children? What do you consider to the be rights of all children?

  1. Consider all the economic factors and actors in the drama of deforestation and child labor abuses. They include wealthy Brazilian businessmen, government officials, middle class bureaucrats, subsistence workers, and American and global citizens, their bankers and politicians. The debt demanded by the developed nations is another important factor.



  1. No education is complete if it is not a global education. We must decide if the goal of education is to raise the living standards of individuals and each particular country or whether it is to bring about a more just global community. Schools and youth work must make some effort toward global understanding.
  2. Children suffering anywhere impinge on the quality of all our lives. To neglect our children, or children anywhere, is to deny our human commitment.

  1. Term papers in school and programs for youth groups should include such issues as these.
Dean Borgman cCYS

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Bobby Hicks
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